Drug nameEthinyl Estradiol
DescriptionA semisynthetic alkylated estradiol with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in oral contraceptives. [PubChem]
DrugBankPrimary Accession Number: DB00977
TypeApproved, Small Molecule
IndicationFor treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with the menopause, female hypogonadism, prostatic carcinoma-palliative therapy of advanced disease, breast cancer, as an oral contraceptive, and as emergency contraceptive.
Mechanism of ActionEstrogens diffuse into their target cells and interact with a protein receptor. Target cells include the female reproductive tract, the mammary gland, the hypothalamus, and the pituitary. Estrogens increase the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins and suppress follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary. The combination of an estrogen with a progestin suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary system, decreasing the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
AbsorptionRapid and complete absorption follows oral intake of ethinyl estradiol (bioavailability 43%).
ToxicityOral, mouse LD50: 1737 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include nausea and vomiting, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in females.
Protein Binding97%
KEGGdrug: D00554 / compound: C07534
PubChemcompound: 5991 / substance: 148835
Metabolizing Enzymes
Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6)CYP2A61548P11509rs165631 rs35647699
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4)CYP3A41576P08684rs13306281
Estrogen receptorESR12099ESR1_HUMANrs2228480 rs2077647 rs4986934 rs1801132 rs34840398 rs17847076 rs17847067 rs17847065 rs9341069 rs9341068 rs9340802 rs9340773 rs1141584 rs746432
Orphan nuclear receptor PXRNR1I28856PXR_HUMANrs56162473 rs4058490 rs59371185 rs35761343 rs12721612 rs12721613 rs1140969 rs1140968 rs2229856 rs1063955 rs12721611 rs12721600
FilesDB00977.mol | DB00977_245.pdf | pdb_959297491309-0.pdb | sdf_919484114996-0.sdf |

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